Brachialis Muscle: Location and Actions

The brachialis muscle is located on the front part of the upper arm, nearest the elbow. Along with the biceps brachii and the brachioradialis, it is one of the primary flexors of the elbow. It gets its name from the Greek words brachialis and brachion, pertaining to the (upper) arm. It is important not to confuse these words with the Greek brachy which … Read more

Biceps Brachii Location and Actions

The biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle located on the front of the arm and makes up the largest part of its bulk. The name biceps is derived from the Greek word bi, meaning “two” and the Latin caput, meaning “head.” The name brachii is a form of the Latin and Greek words brachialis and brachion, which describe something that pertains to the arm. Thus, biceps brachii means … Read more

Splenius Capitis and Cervicis Muscles: Location and Actions

The splenius muscles are broad and thin, getting their name from the Greek word splenium, meaning bandage. Capitis comes from the Latin word for head, caput which refers to the origin of the splenius capitis on the mastoid process and adjacent occipital bone of the skull, underneath the sternocleidomastoid. Cervicus derives from the Latin word cervix which … Read more

Extensor Digitorum Muscle: Location and Actions

The extensor digitorum [pronounced ex-TEN-sur dih-ji-TAW-rum] muscle gets its name from the Greek and Latin ex which means “out of”, and the Latin tendere, which means “to stretch”. So an extensor is a muscle that stretches out or straightens out a joint. The word digitorum is from Latin, indicating the digits or fingers. Communis is Latin for “common” and it … Read more

Scalene Muscles: Location and Actions

The scalene muscles are three paired muscles of the neck, located in the front on either side of the throat, just lateral to the sternocleidomastoid. There is an anterior scalene (scalenus anterior), a medial scalene (scalenus medius), and a posterior scalene (scalenus posterior). They derive their name from the Greek word skalenos and the later Latin scalenus meaning “uneven”, similar to … Read more